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Applied Hydrogeology

by C. W. Fetter
Fourth Edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001

Chapter 4: Principles of Ground-Water Flow

"Ground water possesses energy in mechanical, thermal, and chemical forms. Because the amounts of energy vary spatially, ground water is forced to move from one region to another in nature's attempt to eliminate these energy differentials. The flow of ground water is thus controlled by the laws of physics and thermodynamics. To enable a separate examination of mechanical energy, we will make the simplifying assumption that the water is of nearly constant temperature. Thermal energy must be considered, however, in such applications as geothermal flow systems and burial of radioactive hear sources."

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